Province No. 2 is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province and smallest province by area. It borders Province No. 1 and Province No. 3 to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the west, and the international border with India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi) with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated state of Nepal.